Connect with us

Medical Research

The life span of nematodes has been prolonged by 500% with new genetic manipulations

Published

on

A new cell pathway that amplifies the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans, an approximately one-millimeter long nematode that usually lives in soil, has been identified by a team of researchers at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging in Novato, California and the University of Nanjing, China.

Specifically, this new cell pathway can extend the life of this small worm, which usually lives up to 3-4 weeks, by five times: if the thing could be applied, for example, even to a human being, it could extend the life of the latter up to a duration of 400 or even 500 years.

Of course, we are very far from a possible application on humans due to the extreme complexity of our body and our genetic profile compared to that of a nematode, however thanks to the fact that this nematode shares with us many of its genes, the result is certainly worthy of note in the context of the fight against aging. Specifically, researchers have genetically altered the insulin signalling pathways (IIS) and the target of the rapamycin pathway (TOR), as well as other mitochondrial functions.

These are genetic manipulations that, at least on this worm, have led to an almost exponential effect, as Jianfeng Lan, a researcher who participated in the study, suggests: “The effect is not one plus one equal to two, it is one plus one equal to five. Our results show that nothing exists in nature in a vacuum; in order to develop the most effective anti-aging treatments we must look rather at the longevity networks of individual pathways.”

Now researchers want to understand more about the actual role of the mitochondria of aging probably also to understand if any genetic manipulation could have a similar effect on humans.

Tracey Johnson

Tracey was a Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM) before retiring in 2015 to spend more time with her husband and two sons. In February of 2019 she came up with the idea of starting an online news journal reporting on the latest medical advances, and very shortly afterwards, Health Shiner was born.

3428 Counts Lane, West Hartford, Connecticut 06105
Ph: 860-231-3066
Email: [email protected]
Tracey Johnson
Continue Reading
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Medical Research

Homo erectus arrived in Southeast Asia earlier than previously calculated

Published

on

The first apparitions of homo erectus in Southeast Asia would have occurred earlier than previously theorized: a new study that places the arrival of the first hominids in the area of Sangiran, island of Java, in a period between 1.3 and 1.5 million years ago comes to this conclusion.

These first humans migrated from Asia to Southeast Asia to reach Java at least 300,000 years later than previously believed. The Sangiran area is in fact rich in human fossils, the oldest in Southeast Asia, and is a well-known site, one of the most important to understand the evolution of the first humans in this area.

However, the chronology of the site has always remained uncertain, especially with regard to homo erectus and its first appearance in the region. Precisely for this reason, the researcher Shuji Matsu’ura, together with colleagues, has carried out a new study analyzing with various dating methods, including Uranium Lead (U/Pb) to calculate the age of various volcanic zircons found in this area.

The results that the scientist and his colleagues have obtained are therefore significantly different from the previous ones and estimate the arrival of homo erectus in this area at 1.3-1.5 million years ago while previous results estimated the arrival at 1.7 million years ago.

Tracey Johnson

Tracey was a Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM) before retiring in 2015 to spend more time with her husband and two sons. In February of 2019 she came up with the idea of starting an online news journal reporting on the latest medical advances, and very shortly afterwards, Health Shiner was born.

3428 Counts Lane, West Hartford, Connecticut 06105
Ph: 860-231-3066
Email: [email protected]
Tracey Johnson
Continue Reading

Medical Research

Losing even one night’s sleep increases Tau protein in the brain, an Alzheimer’s marker

Published

on

Losing even one night’s sleep increases levels of Tau, abundant proteins in central nervous system neurons that can be considered a marker of senile dementia, particularly Alzheimer’s disease.
This is the discovery made by a team of researchers at the University of Uppsala who published their study on Neurology.

Tau proteins present in neurons usually form “tangles.” When the formation of these tangles exceeds a certain limit, they accumulate in the brain and lead to Alzheimer’s disease. Before the symptoms of the same disease appear, the accumulation can last for decades. Already in the past, studies had shown that Tau levels in cerebral spinal fluid could increase as a result of sleep deprivation.

According to Jonathan Cedernaes, one of the authors of the study, even a single night’s sleep can cause an increase, albeit slight, in the level of tau in the blood. This, in turn, suggests that repeated sleep interruptions or long-term sleep deprivation can therefore have harmful effects in terms of cognitive function and the risk of Alzheimer’s itself.

The researchers carried out studies on 15 healthy men with an average age of 22 years who had reported, before the start of the experiment, to sleep regularly from seven to nine hours a night.
In the first phase, these people observed a rigorous program of meals and physical activity for two days two nights. After this first phase, blood samples were taken and analyzed.

Then the second phase began, during which the same people were given a normal night’s sleep, followed by a night in which they were kept forcibly awake with lights on and various activities. Subsequent blood tests showed a 17% increase in blood tau levels after just one night of sleep deprivation. The researchers also examined four other Alzheimer’s related biomarkers but these were not characterized by any particular changes or increases.

According to Cedernaes himself, this is explained by the fact that when neurons are active, the release of TAU in the brain is higher than when we sleep. That is why after only one night when awake, the amount is increased the next day.

Now further studies are needed to determine whether these increases cause a general increase in tau levels in the brain over the long term or whether these proteins are eliminated in whole or in part somehow after a sleepless night. Further studies should also be carried out on different populations, e.g. female patients or elderly people.

Tracey Johnson

Tracey was a Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM) before retiring in 2015 to spend more time with her husband and two sons. In February of 2019 she came up with the idea of starting an online news journal reporting on the latest medical advances, and very shortly afterwards, Health Shiner was born.

3428 Counts Lane, West Hartford, Connecticut 06105
Ph: 860-231-3066
Email: [email protected]
Tracey Johnson
Continue Reading

Medical Research

A new instrument will allow mass measurement of exoplanets with extreme precision

Published

on

A new instrument just mounted on the 3.5-meter WIYN telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory in southern Arizona promises to detect mass and other characteristics of exoplanets with unprecedented accuracy. In fact, the new instrument, called NEID, will allow an accuracy three times higher than the previous generation of similar instruments.

A high-precision radial velocity spectrometer will collect light from the stars and measure the sometimes minimal gravitational effect that the planets themselves have on the stars around which they orbit. It is a small “wobble” caused by a periodic shift in the speed of the star. This also happens in our solar system. For example, Jupiter, the largest planet, causes an oscillatory movement of the Sun that can be measured in about 30 miles per hour. The Earth, on the other hand, causes a movement of only 0.2 miles per hour.

Of course, the size of the oscillation is proportional to the mass of the planet and this is why it is possible not only to discover the planets themselves but also to measure their mass with extreme precision. The similar instruments used until now can in fact measure this type of oscillation only up to 2 miles per hour but now the NEID will be able to measure oscillations at even shorter speeds, up to one mile per hour, as explained by Jason Wright, a researcher at the State University of Pennsylvania involved in the project. This means that even exoplanets with a land mass can be more easily discovered.

Such an instrument, in collaboration with others such as the TESS space telescope, will therefore allow a greater number of discoveries of exoplanets so that “things will become really interesting and we will be able to learn what planets are made of,” as the scientist himself explains.

The instrument has already been tested with observations of the brightness of the star 51 Pegasi. The instrument can also be updated and can be used by practically all astronomers, as explained by Sarah Logsdon, another researcher involved in the project.

Tracey Johnson

Tracey was a Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM) before retiring in 2015 to spend more time with her husband and two sons. In February of 2019 she came up with the idea of starting an online news journal reporting on the latest medical advances, and very shortly afterwards, Health Shiner was born.

3428 Counts Lane, West Hartford, Connecticut 06105
Ph: 860-231-3066
Email: [email protected]
Tracey Johnson
Continue Reading
December 2019
M T W T F S S
« Nov   Jan »
 1
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
3031  

Partners

Trending

Copyright © 2019 Health Shiner